Flash Cards

Flash Cards

Session 2—Activity 3: “Who’s Who?”

Liz researched and wrote copy for flash cards that were used in a workshop designed to prepare pharmaceutical sales representatives to sell contraceptives to decision-making customers. Although each card featured a photo only one appears here.

Decision Maker:

Attending Physician

Roles and Responsibilities

Attending_Physician_Takes_Notes_NCI_Wikimedia_Commons“I supervise medical students and residents in the hospital and clinic. Like most (but not all) people in my position, I focus on my specialty, which, in my case, is OB/GYN. Although many of the minute-by- minute clinical decision are made by residents, med students, and PAs, final responsibility for patient care falls on my shoulders.”

Critical Success Factors

“Teaching skills, clinical skills, being a good mentor and a good role model—all these things are critical to my success. It’s also critical that I consistently demonstrate the value of building positive relationships with patients and reinforce the importance of taking a comprehensive approach to patient care.”

1

Decision Maker

Case Manager

Roles and Responsibilities

“I actively manage patient care from admission through the entire continuum of care. Obviously, this is a collaborative process—one that requires me to assess, plan, implement, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate the options and services required to meet an individual patient’s health needs. When everything falls into place and I do my job right, I achieve a balance between clinical and financial outcomes. Who needs someone like me? I’ll give you an example from my own practice. For an at-risk mom, the work I do can mean the difference between delivering and discharging from the hospital a healthy, full- term baby and prolonged, neonatal care for a premature baby, which can run to thousands of dollars a day.”

Critical Success Factors

“Knowing that what I’m doing is what’s best for the patient—while also being compliant with all regulations—is always in the forefront of my mind. Communicating well and using available resources to promote quality, cost-effective outcomes is fundamental to my success.”

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Decision Maker

Certified Health-Education Specialist (CHES)

Roles and Responsibilities

“I design, conduct, and evaluate activities that help improve the health of my clients. My work involves a variety of health-education strategies and a good deal of data management. People with my training can work in a variety of settings and assume a number of responsibilities, but because I work in family-planning clinic, my primary responsibility is to coordinate family-planning and adolescent health services in collaboration with providers, administrators, and community agencies. This involves outreach efforts at college campuses, local high schools, and youth centers. The abbreviation after my name is one indication of my professional competency and signifies that I have met quality standards established by a national organization.”

Critical Success Factors

“Because I advocate for patients and families in complex situations involving community agencies, payers, and healthcare providers, I have to wear many hats and communicate clearly as a member of a multidisciplinary team.”

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Decision Maker

Certified Nurse-Midwife (CNM)

Roles and Responsibilities

“I’m a registered nurse who completed an accredited program of study and clinical experience in obstetrical care. Like others with my credentials, I assist pregnant women and their newborn babies. People with my qualifications may work in hospitals, HMOs, birthing centers, public health departments, community health centers, and private practice. When conditions are safe and suitable, we may even work in the mother’s home! What do I do? I provide Pap smears and breast exams and other gynecologic services, I advise women about reproductive health and personal care, I monitor the health of the mother and fetus during pregnancy—and I perform complete prenatal care, including abdominal and pelvic examinations. When medical treatments and medications are necessary, I work closely with obstetricians and other physicians.”

Critical Success Factors

“Because people in this field of nursing provide healthcare involving the emotional and physical support of women before, during, and after childbirth, we need to be able to develop strong interpersonal relationships and enjoy working with people. On many levels, this is gratifying work. Did you know (for example) that people with my training have played a significant role in reducing the maternal and infant death rate in this country?”

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Decision Maker

Chief Resident

Roles and Responsibilities

“I have many roles, including teacher, manager, problem solver, and physician. I work to enhance communication between the resident staff, the attending faculty, and the technical, administrative, and clerical staff. In addition, I act as an advocate for residents and work closely with the program director, particularly in coordinating resident rotation and call schedules, conferences, orientation programs, social functions, applicant interviews, and resident involvement in student teaching.”

Critical Success Factors

“A big part of my job centers on teaching junior residents and medical students. Given that I am a senior member of the resident education committee and involved in progress evaluations—and given that residents are under a great deal of stress—I need to be objective and fair and do all I can to maintain or boost resident morale.”

5

Decision Maker

Childbirth Educator

Roles and Responsibilities

“There are many aspects to the work I do, including: teaching pregnant couples breathing and relaxation exercises, showing childbirth videos, helping couples plan for a newborn. Because I know women never forget their experiences giving birth, I do everything in my power to help ensure a positive memory. I am not a nurse, but I received solid training in the Bradley Method. (Others in my field have trained at either Lamaze International, ALACE, BirthWorks, or ICEA.) It’s not just that I love my work—it’s a calling!”

Critical Success Factors

“Because I have an impact on the beginning of the family through education and choices, it’s critical that I have the know-how to provide pregnant couples with tools and information they need to cope with labor and make informed choices. Excellent communication skills are also required.”

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Decision Maker

Clinical Pharmacist

Roles and Responsibilities

“While someone with my training could work in any number of healthcare settings, I have chosen to work in a teaching hospital, where I am a primary source of scientifically valid information and advice regarding the safe, appropriate, and cost-effective use of medications. On a routine basis I evaluate and recommend medication-therapy to patients and clinicians.”

Critical Success Factors

“Applying evidence-based therapeutic guidelines, evolving sciences, and emerging technologies—all these things are critical to my ability to achieve therapeutic goals and ensure optimal patient outcomes.”

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Decision Maker

CME Director

Roles and Responsibilities

“I play an instrumental role in faculty development and the creation, coordination, and implementation of continuing medical education for physicians—as well as continuing education for hospital staff. Program goals I set for myself include: to use performance data and clinical evidence to plan programs, to blend the latest educational and information technologies with innovative instructional design, and to make the programs I develop more convenient for faculty and area physicians (for example, by increasing web-based programming).”

Critical Success Factors

“It’s essential that I replace the episodic programming that has characterized efforts at this institution in the past with a program of continuous professional development. It’s also critical that I work closely with internal departments to ensure adherence to hospital policies and procedures and compliance with ACCME guidelines.”

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Decision Maker

Hospital Administrator (or Executive Director)

Roles and Responsibilities

“I oversee staff members responsible for daily operations. This entails everything from patient care, to meal preparation, to housekeeping, to facility maintenance, billing, quality assurance, managed care, and physician contracting.”

Critical Success Factors

“Minimizing the administrative burden faced by my hospital is critical to my success. Did you know that every hour of surgery and inpatient acute care requires 36 minutes of paperwork?!”

9

Decision Maker

Medical Director (or Chief of Staff)

Roles and Responsibilities

“In a nutshell, I serve as the representative of the hospital medical staff and as the intermediary with the board of trustees. I am also a voting member of the board of trustees and serve as a representative to its many committees. Among my many responsibilities is making the ultimate decision on granting medical staff members with hospital privileges. Another is running general staff and medical staff executive committee meetings.”

Critical Success Factors

“Like other teaching hospitals, ours is a complex institution that operates with limited resources. Because many groups in our institution are in competition for these resources and, quite frankly, in competition for dominance, I don’t take part in discussions so much as I mediate them. Although I attend a lot of meetings, I cast a vote only when necessary to break a tie.”

OR:

“Given that one of our many missions is to serve as a safety net for underserved populations in our community. I am extremely concerned about the staggering expense of uncompensated care. Because the costs this entails threatens to have a negative impact on the scope of hospital services, my hope is that state legislators will seriously begin crafting real-world solutions.”

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Decision Maker

Nurse

Roles and Responsibilities

“I am a highly trained and skilled professional who cares for the sick and infirm. In the course of my work, I help to educate patients in issues of healthy living and wellness, as well as help care for any acute or chronic disease. I perform treatments and procedures as prescribed by physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners. Like others in my field, I combine the fine art of caring with scientific knowledge and acquired skills. People with my credentials work in many different settings and perform duties related to the settings in which they work. Scope of practice is defined by the level of education and the particular license earned.”

Critical Success Factors

“A key aspect of my job centers on documentation—charting findings from assessments, treatments and procedures performed by myself and others. Charting outcomes of these procedures is also key. Because other hospital personnel need to be able to pluck up a patient chart and understand exactly what was done and where things stand, effective writing is one of the many skills I have honed.”

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Decision Maker

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)

Roles and Responsibilities

“I practice in a wide range of settings, including traditional hospital surgical suites and obstetrical delivery rooms. Monitoring vital signs, inserting artificial airways, and administering oxygen are just a few of the reasons I’m a vital part of the OB/GYN team. I like my work. As an advanced-practice nurse, I enjoy a high degree of autonomy, and although I carry a ton of responsibility, I am satisfactorily compensated and viewed with professional respect.”

Critical Success Factors

“Education—including continuing education—is critical to my success. Also critical is a solid nursing background in the ICU and/or the ER setting.”

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Decision Maker

OB/GYN Department Chairperson (or Chief)

Roles and Responsibilities

“I’m responsible for the optimal operation of the OB/GYN department. As you can imagine, this entails a number of responsibilities and keeps me on my toes. The quality of care provided by residents and fellows on the service is a primary responsibility, as is reviewing credentials and privileges (including ongoing performance reviews) of all members with clinical privileges. Utilization review and the development and implementation of rules and regulations are other key aspects of my work. Of course I’m board-certified in obstetrics/gynecology—and it helps that I also have expertise in managed care, electronic medical record systems, and medical liability issues. I’m accountable to the hospital’s Chief of Staff, the Chief Medical Officer, and the CEO.”

Critical Success Factors

“Given that among all specialties OB/GYNs have the highest number of lawsuits, successfully managing risk to minimize medical liability is critical to our success. At the same time, OB/GYNs are increasingly playing a larger role managing women’s health—for example, we are generally more involved than formerly in treating symptoms associated with menopause, cardiovascular disease, depression—even weight management. So an interesting dynamic is at play here.”

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Decision Maker

OB/GYN Dietician

Roles and Responsibilities

“I am a key member of a multidisciplinary WIC team. As you may know, the Women’s Infants and Children’s (WIC) program provides federal grants to states for supplemental foods, health care referrals, and nutrition education for low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and non-breastfeeding postpartum women—as well as to infants and children up to age five who are at nutritional risk. My particular role is to provide nutritional assessment and counseling and to issue food vouchers for qualified women. This entails assessing and assigning priority levels for receiving WIC services.”

Critical Success Factors

“Because WIC cannot serve all eligible women and children, I have to adhere to an established system of priorities. Critical to my success is being compassionate and tough. This is not an easy balancing-act. For example: My decision to provide services to an infant at nutritional risk may mean I have to turn away a homeless woman, who is also in need of nutritional services.”

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Decision Maker

Pharmacy Buyer

Roles and Responsibilities

“Maintaining inventory control is a key aspect of my work. Control is necessary to prevent overstocks and buying emergencies. In addition, I have to stay on top of contracts—and then I have to comply with them. Other challenges include: adopting electronic medication administration record technology and coping with an ongoing clinical labor shortage. Addressing all these issues is of course essential, because not only will a more efficient system produce significant savings for the hospital, it will serve the overall objective of providing state-of-the-art patient care.”

Critical Success Factors

“Because my hospital has more than 2,000 products in its inventory, modernizing and taking control of inventory is critical to my success. Improved inventory management will help us on many fronts, including freeing up pharmacist time, reducing costs, and increasing available capital for upcoming needs.”

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Decision Maker

Pharmacy Director

Roles and Responsibilities

“I’m a PharmD, who—every single day—is called upon to demonstrate financial-management, organizational, and leadership skills. My job is a big one: I implement pharmacy policies that support the hospital’s strategic plan, I coordinate department staff meetings and in-services, I develop and oversee departmental quality assurance (QA) programs, and I actively participate in hospital-wide QA activities. And this is just for starters. Other responsibilities include: preparation of reports and analyses of department operations for administration, medical staff, and the patient care committee; recommending a department budget; developing and implementing new services designed to keep everyone (physicians, patients, and pharmacy employees) happy. Adhering to safety and environmental regulations and complying with this teaching hospital’s mission, vision, and values are also key.”

Critical Success Factors

“Dramatic changes in the healthcare system, especially those impacting pharmacy, mean that many factors are critical to our success. For example: As Medicare evolves towards Medicare Advantage plans, it’s critical that we implement medication therapy management (MTM) services that measurably improve overall healthcare quality and support HEDIS scores. We can’t just respond to change, we need to shape change. And we need to do this on many fronts, including Medicare legislation, Medicaid reform, emergency preparedness…you name it.”

16

Decision Maker

Pharmacy Technician

Roles and Responsibilities

“I work in a busy hospital pharmacy, where I help licensed pharmacists provide medication to patients. While many of my tasks are routine (e.g., counting tablets and labeling bottles), I also maintain patient profiles, prepare insurance claim forms, and stock and take inventory of prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Sometimes, I’m called upon to read patient charts and prepare and deliver medicine to patients admitted to the hospital. Yet another responsibility is to assemble 24-hour supplies of medicine for particular patients.”

Critical Success Factors

“Although I am carefully supervised by licensed pharmacists, I must work independently without constant instruction. Precision and unflagging attention to detail are also critical to my success. Given the potentially serious consequences of pharmacy errors, precision and attention to detail can often be—without exaggeration—a matter of life and death!”

17

Decision Maker

Physician Assistant

Roles and Responsibilities

“I practice medicine in a teaching hospital under the supervision of physicians and surgeons. Don’t confuse me with medical assistants, who perform routine clinical and clerical tasks, because I’m formally trained to provide preventive, diagnostic, and healthcare services. Working as part of a multidisciplinary team, I take medical histories, examine and treat patients, order and interpret lab tests and x-rays, and make diagnoses. I treat minor injuries and instruct patients how to follow through with therapy. Like most people in most states with my training, I can prescribe medication.”

Critical Success Factors

“Fortunately, I work in a state that allows people with my training a relatively wide scope of practice. This is crucial to me and my team, because as the number of hours hospital residents are permitted to work is reduced, I am increasingly called on to pitch in and shore up the medical staff.”

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Decision Maker

Resident

Roles and Responsibilities

“Having received a medical degree (either an MD or a DO), I am almost entirely focused on the care of hospitalized and clinic patients. Most of what I do is directly supervised by more senior physicians. Whereas medical school provided me with a broad range of medical knowledge, basic clinical skills, and limited experience practicing medicine—my current position provides in-depth training within a specific branch of medicine. Eventually my experience will lead to eligibility for board certification in my referral specialty, OB/GYN.”

Critical Success Factors

“It goes without saying that I need to excel academically and as a clinician. But other critical success factors are at least as important. I’m talking about coping skills—keeping my life in balance by establishing priorities and setting limits, maintaining calm under pressure, working well with patients and their families and as a member of a team.”

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Decision Maker

Resident Coordinator

Roles and Responsibilities

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Decision Maker

Social Worker

Roles and Responsibilities

“Like most in my profession I have an overwhelming desire to try to help people improve their lives. People with my training work in a number of different settings. Often, we specialize. My specialty is counseling pregnant teenagers and single parents. In addition to providing psychosocial assessment, counseling, and referral, I help arrange for adoptions and I help find foster homes for neglected or abandoned children. I also help obtain financial assistance, either through Medicaid or other alternatives.”

Critical Success Factors

“Because I provide social services in an outpatient clinic linked to a teaching hospital that is governed by managed care, a critical success factor is to contain costs by focusing on short-term interventions.”

 

Photo Credit:
Attending physician, National Cancer Institute, Wikimedia Commons